Sunday
Jun132010

 

Composition 

 is the overall arrangement and placement of

Art Elements

  (Line, Shape, Color, Texture, Value, Space and Form)

  using

      Principles of Design

 (Variety, Contrast, Emphasis, Rhythm, Pattern, Movement, Balance and Unity)

 

 

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

 

1. Line

Direction and appearance:   straight, curved, vertical, horizontal, diagonal, parallel, perpendicular, thick, thin, long, short, heavy, light, strong, weak, broken, dotted, wandering, fast or slow line, expressive line,

 *Contour lines, *Implied lines , *Gesture  lines

  (where 2 colors meet, 2 values meet, or 2 shapes meet, you will find a line)

 

2. Shape

Organic and Geometrical shapes                         Positive and Negative shapes

  (combined shapes, well-defined distinct shapes, diffuse shapes)

 

3. Color   (Hue, Intensity, Value) 

Primary Colors: Red, Yellow, Blue           

Secondary Colors: Orange, Purple, Green   (2 primary colors combined)

Color Complements/Opposites:     Red-Green,             Yellow-Purple,             Blue-Orange

Monochromatic    and    Analogous Color

Color Temperature:  Warm/Hot and Cool/Cold        

(Blues (cool colors) recede and Reds (warm colors) move forward)                                   

(Color vibrations, bright colors, muddy colors, dirty colors, pure or mixed colors)

  

4. Texture

Examples: smooth, bumpy, velvety, rough, furry, ______________________________________

 

5. Value            (Tone/Shading)     Light and Dark continuum

(Squint to find the darkest dark and the lightest light and the middle values )

(Values can create appearance of 3 dimensions - form)

(Usually darks recede and lights come forward)

 

6. Space

Flat Space:             2 Dimensions                                   

Deep Space:       *Foreground, Middle ground and Background

*Overlapping implies depth

*Decreasing Size implies depth

*Atmospheric Perspective (as you go back in space: values, colors and distinctness decrease)

* Linear Perspective

 

7. Form

3 Dimensions

Describes volume and mass in space.  May be viewed from many angles

*Solid mass, *Enclosing space, *Interplay of negative and positive shapes in space.

 

 

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN 

using the Elements to create visual interest, ideas and intention in a composition

 

Variety

The variety of Lines, Shapes, Colors, Textures, Values, Spaces and Forms creates interest.

Contrast and Opposition

Differences and diversity create interest and excitement. Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements.  Examples: Contrast of line type, direction and expression, organic/geometric shapes, positive/negative shapes, warm/cool colors, intense/muddy colors, opposite colors, dark/light value, texture variety, etc.

Emphasis:

"Center of Interest" gives visual weight. Where is the focus concentrated? Points of interest pull the viewer's eye to the important parts of the painting.   How are LSCTVSF used to do this? How are VCERPMBU used?

Many artists put the focal point a bit off center and balance it with some minor themes to maintain our interest.

Dominance relates to varying degrees of emphasisDominance gives a painting interest and focus, counteracting confusion and monotony.

Some artists avoid emphasis on purpose. They want all parts of the painting to be equally interesting/important.

Example: Jackson Pollock

Rhythm:

Rhythm is the repetition of lines, shapes, colors, textures or values. These Elements can recur regularly or irregularly.

Rhythm helps direct eye movement, creates a flow and can make an artwork seem active, exciting and musical.

Pattern:

Patterns are planned or random repetitions of line, shape, color, texture, or value.

Repetition with variation is interesting, without variation repetition can become monotonous

Breaking a repeating pattern adds interest.

Movement:

Directional Movement - is a visual path through the composition. Directional movement can be created with colors, lines, textures, shapes, space or a value pattern (darks and lights) . 

Balance

The arranging of elements so that no one part of the painting overpowers, or seems heavier than any other part.

How do you feel and sense the visual weights of lines, shapes, colors, textures or values in the painting.

Symmetrical Balance can create calm, order and stability. 

Asymmetrical Balance can create tension, stress and instability, but also can create interest and excitement.

Unity:

brings together a composition. You do not see separate sections, but you see a whole

 Everything adds to the whole and nothing detracts from the whole.  The painting feels unified, complete and “of one mind.”  The Elements of Design and Principles all work together to create a whole.  There is an inner logic to the way everything is put together. 

 Unity or harmony is the quality of wholeness or oneness.  Unity helps organize a visual image, facilitating interpretation and understanding.

 

Art Criticism Guide

 

1. DESCRIPTION: DESCRIBING THE FACTS       

  LOOKING CAREFULLY AT ARTWORK

 What is the subject matter? What do you see? Objects you can name?

How is the subject matter being presented to the viewer?

Describe a part of the artwork without pointing to it.

What Lines (kinds, directions, movements), Shapes, Colors, Textures, Values, Space?

How many different (L,S,C,T,V,S)  can you find?   Describe these.

How is the art media being used by the artist? Thick/thin paint, brush marks, sculpture material, Identify and describe the details the artist has shown us?

 

2. ANALYSIS: LOOKING AT THE WAY THE FACTS ARE PUT TOGETHER

   HOW THE ARTIST VISUALLY ORGANIZES THEIR ARTWORK

What variation of LSCTVS (Line,Shape,Color,Texture,Space) do you see?

What colors are predominant? What colors are next to each other? Describe their effect.

How has the painter shown texture? What areas? All-over?

What contrast do you see and where? LSCTVS

Where is the main focal point (notice first)? (Emphasis/ Contrast) (L,S,C,T,V,S) (Subject)

What are the three most important elements (LSCTVS) used? Where? Least important?

What is repeated? (LSCTVS) What Rhythms do you see? What patterns?

How is the eye drawn around and through the artwork? (Movement, Repetition, Rhythm, Pattern,)

Is there balance? Balance of (LSCTVS)?   if yes, how, if no, why not?

How is the artwork Unified?

What are the three most important art principles (VCEPRMBU) (see art education terms) used?

Find the busy areas, the areas of rest, how are they interconnected? Not connected?

What forces are acting in this artwork? (Pulls? Pushes?)

What would happen if you took out ________? You put in _____________

Is this artwork realistic, abstract(some reference to a subject), or non-objective (no reference to a subject)?

 

3. INTERPRETATION: FINDING THE MEANING OF THE ARTWORK

Imitation? Expression? Or Formalism?

What feeling or emotions does the artwork evoke (if any)? How does it affect you?

What do you think the artist is trying to say? Is there a message? Or purpose?

What does the title of the work tell you about its possible meaning?

What do the forms or images or subject matter remind you of?

What are they associated with?

Is subject matter presented symbolically? If so How?

What idea or ideas is the artist trying to show us? How?

How does this artwork show culture?

 

4. JUDGEMENT: EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF AN ARTWORK

What school/ style of art does the artwork belong to?

Does this work tell you anything about the life and times of the person who made it?

Does the work communicate a message? What? How?

Is the technique well executed? How?

Do you like the work? Why or Why not? Use Description, Analysis and Interpretation.

Is the artwork successful? Why or Why not?

Is the artwork Unified? How? Why? Why not?

What changes would you make if you could?